Waukesha (pronounced /?w??k????/) is a city in and the county seat of Waukesha County, Wisconsin, United States. As of the 2000 census, Waukesha had a total population of 64,826. The city is located adjacent to the Town of Waukesha.
In 2006, Money ranked Waukesha 36th on its list of the 100 best places to live in the United States.
The area that the city now encompasses was first inhabited in 1834. By 1846, the area was incorporated as the Village of Prairieville. On February 8, 1847, it changed its name to Waukesha, and in 1896, Waukesha incorporated as a city.
Waukesha was known for its extremely clean and good-tasting spring water and was called a spa town. This earned the city the nicknames "Spring City" and "Saratoga of the West". However, emissions have since ruined these springs, and a number have gone dry. But during this particular era in the late 1800s and early 1900s, many celebrities of their day came to reside there for a while, such as Mary Todd Lincoln after her husband, President Abraham Lincoln's, death.
During the Cold War Waukesha County hosted three Nike Missile batteries, which were located in the City of Waukesha as well as nearby Muskego and Lannon. In the City of Waukesha the U.S. Army and later the Wisconsin National Guard operated the command and control center from 1956-70 at what is now Hillcrest Park on Davidson Road. The missile pits existed near the corner of Cleveland Av. and Hwy 164 - first holding Ajax missiles with conventional warheads and later the nuclear equipped Hercules warhead. The Hercules provided a similar nuclear capability as that of the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki in WWII. The Midwest Chapter of the Cold War Museum has promoted the preservation of the Hillcrest Park site as a local Cold War museum, honoring Cold War veterans and commemorating America's longest and costliest conflict. 
In 2006, Waukesha had a non-partisan election for mayor. Local pundits, however, labeled Ann Nischke as the Republicans' candidate and Larry Nelson as the Democrats' candidate. Larry Nelson won the election, which may show a change of politics in historically conservative Waukesha County. Nelson is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg.
The name of the city is often misrepresented as meaning "fox" or "little foxes," though it is actually an Anglicization of the name Ojibwe Waagoshag or Potawatomi word Wau-tsha. Wauke-tsha was actually the leader of the local tribe at the time of first European settlement of Waukesha. This is confirmed by accounts of Increase Lapham, an early settler and historian in the region. Original accounts by Lapham indicate that the original word for "Fox" was Pishtaka.  Morris Cutler, one of the earliest inhabitants, would also tell visitors about the original chief Wau-tsha. Since then, the name has often been misquoted as Wauk-Tsha.
Teens also call it "Sha Town" or simply "the sha".
Geography and Climate
Waukesha is located near the center of Waukesha County in southeastern Wisconsin, 18 miles west of Milwaukee. Waukesha is also located 59 miles east of Madison. The city shares borders with City of Brookfield, Town of Brookfield, Genesee, New Berlin, City of Pewaukee, and Town of Waukesha.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.7 square miles (56.2 km²).About 21.6 square miles (55.9 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (0.32%) is water.
The city is located on both sides of the Fox River, which starts near Menomonee Falls and flows into the Illinois River.
As of the census of 2000, there were 64,825 people, 25,663 households, and 16,296 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,000.5 people per square mile (1,158.8/km²). There were 26,856 housing units at an average density of 1,243.1/sq mi (480.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.22% White, 1.28% African American, 0.33% Native American, 2.17% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.31% from other races, and 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.58% of the population.
Approximately 32.5% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. Some 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the city the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $50,084, and the median income for a family was $60,841. Males had a median income of $40,743 versus $29,279 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,242. About 3.0% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.0% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.
Waukesha is home to Carroll College, a private four-year Presbyterian school. Opened in 1846, it is the oldest college in the state (a title also claimed by Beloit College). As a liberal arts school, Carroll offers more than fifty areas of study, primarily at an undergraduate level.
Additionally, the University of Wisconsin-Waukesha, on Waukesha's northwest side, is a public two-year college.
One of the two New Tribes Bible Institute campuses within the United States is located on a large hill in central Waukesha. Operated by New Tribes Mission, the school doubles as the first part of a four-year missionary training program.
The School District of Waukesha serves the city and portions of other municipalities. It operates four high schools in the city: Waukesha South High School, Waukesha West High School, Waukesha North High School, and Harvey Phillip High School, an alternative school. It also runs three middle schools and 17 elementary schools.
The city is also home to Waukesha County's only Catholic high school, Catholic Memorial High School. There are also two small evangelical Christian schools in Waukesha: West Suburban Christian Academy and Waukesha Christian School.
Listed are people or groups who are native to Waukesha, though they may not reside in the city anymore.
Cellnet Technology Inc (based in Alpharetta, Georgia) plans to make Waukesha the second community in Wisconsin outfitted with a city-wide Wi-Fi network blanket. (Midwest Fiber Networks is scheduled to make Milwaukee the state's first wi-fi municipality by summer 2006.)
Cellnet, which began working on a similar "blanket" for Madison, Wisconsin in early 2006, had planned to present their idea to Waukesha's Information Technology Advisory Committee in February 2006. If the proposed installation of the network goes through, city residents would only have to buy a wireless card (typically $50 USD) to gain access to the internet from any area in Waukesha.